[LIB Electrode Slurry Analysis] What is "Relaxation Process"?

QWhat are "resistive components" and "mitigation processes" in slurry analysis?


Image 1 shows a slurry undergoing impedance measurement.
Measurement electrodes are inserted into the slurry and used to apply an AC voltage.
This process yields impedance measured values based on the current response when the voltage is applied.

Image 2 illustrates the movement of electrons inside and between materials when the above impedance measurement is performed.
Application of the AC voltage causes electrons to travel within primary particles, across contacts between particles of the same material and between particles of different materials. 
The resistive component R indicates resistance to the movement of electrons, while the capacitive component C indicates the tendency of electrons to accumulate.
When electrons flow to an object that is connected in parallel with R and C components, electrons initially accumulate in the C component and then flow to the R component. 
Due to the manner in which electrons that have charged the C component subsequently leak to the R component, this phenomenon is known as the relaxation process.
Actually performing impedance measurement of a slurry yields impedance characteristics that correspond to this relaxation process, suggesting that it occurs in bulk material suspended in the slurry and at points where materials come into contact with each other.

Related Resources
- Principles of LIB Electrode Slurry Analysis: Slurry Analytical System